References

Active Rehabilitation

Steven Z. George, MS, PT, et al. A Comparison of Fear-Avoidance Beliefs in Patients with Lumbar Spine Pain and Cervical Spine Pain. In Spine. October 1, 2001. Vol. 26. No. 19. Pp. 2139-2145.

Eli Molde Hagen, MD, et al. Does Early Intervention with a Light Mobilization Program Reduce Long-Term Sick Leave for Low Back Pain. In Spine. August 1, 2000. Vol. 25. No. 15. Pp. 1973-1976.

Anne F. Mannion, PhD, et al. Active Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: Part 3. Factors Influencing Self-Rated Disability and Its Change Following Therapy. In Spine. April 15, 2001. Vol. 26. No. 8. Pp. 920-929.

Sylvie Rozenberg, MD, et al. Bed Rest or Normal Activity for Patients with Acute Low Back Pain. In Spine. July 15, 2002. Vol. 27. No. 14. Pp. 1487-1493.

Inger B. Scheel, DC, MOH, et al. A Call for Action: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Strategies to Implement Active Sick Leave for Patients with Low Back Pain. In Spine. March 15, 2002. Vol. 27. No. 6. Pp. 561-566.

Maurits W. van Tulder, PhD, and Gordon Waddell, DSc, MD, FRCS. Conservative Treatment of Acute and Subacute Low Back Pain. Neck and Back Pain: The Scientific Evidence of Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Eds Alf L. Nachemson, MD, PhD, and Egon Jonsson, PhD. Lipincott, Williams, & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2000. Pp. 241-269.

Complementary Medicine

Peter M. Wolsko, MD, MPH, et al. Patterns and Perceptions of Care for Treatment of Back and Neck Pain: Results of a National Survey. In Spine. January 1, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 3. Pp. 292-298.

Ergonomics

Benjamin C. Amick III, PhD, et al. Effect of Office Ergonomics Intervention on Reducing Musculoskeletal Symptoms. In Spine. December 15, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 24. Pp. 2706-2711.

Lifting

Wilhelmina E. Hoogendoorn, MSc, et al. Flexion and Rotation of the Trunk and Lifting at Work are Risk Factors for Low Back Pain: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study. In Spine. December 15, 2000. Vol. 25. No. 23. Pp. 3087-3092.

Yung-Hui Lee, PhD, and Tzu-Hsien Lee, MS. Human Muscular and Postural Responses in Unstable Load Lifting. In Spine. September 1, 2002. Vol. 27. No. 17. Pp. 1881-1886.

William S. Marras, PhD, et al. Spine Loading Characteristics of Patients with Low Back Pain Compared with Asymptomatic Individuals. In Spine. December 1, 2001. Vol. 26. No. 23. Pp. 2566-2574.

Joan M. Stevenson, PhD, et al. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Low Back Pain in an Industrial Population. In Spine. June 15, 2001. Vol. 26. No. 12. Pp. 1370-1377.

J. (Petra) C. E. van der Burg, MSc, et al. Effects of Unexpected Lateral Mass Placement on Trunk Loading in Lifting. In Spine. April 15, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 8. Pp. 764-770.

Simon S. Yeung, MPhil, PT, et al. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Single and Multiple Body Regions and Effects of Perceived Risk of Injury among Manual Handling Workers. In Spine. October 1, 2002. Vol. 27. No. 19. Pp. 2166-2172.

Lumbar Stabilization

Jacek Cholewicki, PhD, et al. Neuromuscular Function in Athletes Following Recovery from a Recent Acute Low Back Injury. In Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. November 2002. Vol. 32. No. 11. Pp. 568-575.

Carolyn Richardson, PhD, BPhty (Hons), et al. Therapeutic Exercise for Spinal Segmental Stabilization in Low Back Pain: Scientific Basis and Clinical Approach. Churchill Livingstone. Philadelphia, PA. 1999.

Obesity and Back Pain

Jason C. Fanuele, MS, et al. Association between Obesity and Functional Status in Patients with Spine Disease. In Spine. February 1, 2002. Vol. 27. No. 3. Pp. 306-312.

Posture

Gerold R. Ebenbichler, et al. Sensory-Motor Control of the Lower Back: Implications for Rehabilitation. In Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. November 2001. Vol. 33. No. 11. Pp. 1889-1898.

McLean Jackson, BSc, et al. Multifidus EMG and Tension-Relaxation Recovery after Prolonged Static Lumbar Flexion. In Spine. April 1, 2001. Vol. 26. No. 7. Pp. 715-723.

Proprioception

Peter B. O'Sullivan, PhD, et al. Lumbar Repositioning Deficit in a Specific Low Back Pain Population. In Spine. May 15, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 10. Pp. 1074-1079.

Questionnaires

Megan Davidson, PT, BAppSc, and Jennifer L. Keating, PT, PhD. A Comparison of Five Low Back Disability Questionnaires: Reliability and Responsiveness. In Physical Therapy. January 2002. Vol. 82. No. 1. Pp. 8-24.

Julie M. Fritz, PT, ATC, and Sara R. Piva, MS, PT. Physical Impairment Index: Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness in Patients with Acute Low Back Pain. In Spine. June 1, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 11. Pp. 1189-1194.

Steven Z. George, PT, PhD, et al. Physical Therapist Management of a Patient with Acute Low Back Pain and Elevated Fear-Avoidance Beliefs. In Physical Therapy. June 2004. Vol. 84. No. 6. Pp. 538-549.

Liset H. M. Pengel, MSc, et al. Responsiveness of Pain, Disability, and Physical Impairment Outcomes in Patients with Low Back Pain. In Spine. April 15, 2004. Vol. 29. No. 8. Pp. 879-883.

Smoking and Back Pain

Anna-Lisa Hellsing, MMed, MSc, and Ing-Liss Bryngelsson. Predictors of Musculoskeletal Pain in Men: A Twenty-Year Follow-Up from Examination at Enlistment. In Spine. December 1, 2000. Vol. 35. No. 23. Pp. 3080-3086.

Glenn R. Rechtine II, MD, et al. Effect of the Spine Practitioner on Patient Smoking Status. In Spine. September 1, 2000. Vol. 25. No. 17. Pp. 2229-2233.

Molly T. Vogt, PhD, et al. Influence of Smoking on the Health Status of Spinal Patients. In Spine. February 1, 2002. Vol. 27. No. 3. Pp. 313-319.

Work-Injury Management

Rachelle Buchbinder, MBBS (Hons), MSc, FRACP, et al. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Effects of a Media Campaign on Back Pain Beliefs and Its Potential Influence on Management of Low Back Pain in General Practice. In Spine. December 1, 2001. Vol. 26. No. 23. Pp. 2535-2542.

Marlene Fransen, PhD, et al. Risk Factors Associated with the Transition from Acute to Chronic Occupational Back Pain. In Spine. January 1, 2002. Vol. 27. No. 1. Pp. 92-98.

Julie M. Fritz, PT, PhD, ATC, and Steven Z. George, PT, MS. Identifying Psychosocial Variables in Patients with Acute Work-Related Low Back Pain: The Importance of Fear-Avoidance Beliefs. In Physical Therapy. October 2002. Vol. 82. No. 10. Pp. 973-983.

Steven Z. George, PT, PhD, et al. The Effect of a Fear-Avoidance-Based Physical Therapy Intervention for Patients with Acute Low Back Pain: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial. In Spine. December 1, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 23. pp. 2551-2560.

Nortin M. Hadler, MD. Editorial: The Bane of the Aging Worker. In Spine.
June 15, 2001. Vol. 26. No. 12. Pp. 1309-1310.

Rudi Hiebert, BS, et al. Work Restrictions and Outcome of Nonspecific Low Back Pain. In Spine. April 1, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 7. Pp. 722-728.

Kaija Karjalainen, MD, et al. Outcome Determinants of Subacute Low Back Pain. In Spine. December 1, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 23. Pp. 2634-2640.

K. A. Parks, BSc, et al. A Comparison of Lumbar Range of Motion and Functional Ability Scores in Patients with Low Back Pain. In Spine. February 15, 2003. Vol. 28. No. 4. Pp. 380-384.

Carina Thorbjornsson, M Soc Sc, et al. Physical and Psychosocial Factors Related to Low Back Pain during a 24-Year Period. In Spine. February 1, 2000. Vol. 25. No. 3. Pp. 369-375.

Gordon Waddell, DSc, MD, FRCS. The Back Pain Revolution. Churchill Livingston. Philadelphia, PA. 1998.






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